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Op/Voice Information .....

Web Glossary

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Abbreviations
This seemed like a good place to offer a document packed with every known computer-related abbreviation/description. It is very thorough. Download here.
Address
The numerical location of a web site. Example: 206.103.179.190. The first six digits are a country location, the next three are a server computer location, and the last three are a location on the server computer. The numbers can range from 0 to 255.
Agent
Agents are search tools that automatically seek out relevant online information based on your specifications. Agents are also called intelligent agents, personal agents, knowbots or droids
Anchor
Synonymous with hyperlinks, anchor refers to non-linear links among documents. Or more simply put, it's the word or phrase that can be selected to connect to another page or resource.
Archie
Derived from the word archive, Archie is a Net-based service that allows you to locate files that can be downloaded via FTP
ASCII
(pronounced "Ask-ee") An acronym for American Standard Code for Information Exchange, ASCII is an international standard in which numbers, letters, punctuation marks, symbols and control codes are assigned numbers from 0 to 127. Easily transferred over networks, ASCII is a plain, unadorned text without style or font specifications.
Asychronous Connection
The type of connection a modem makes over a phone line, this connection is not synchronized by a mutual timing signal or clock.
AU Sounds
This is an audio format developed for Sun workstations and often used to distribute sound clips via the Web.
Auto Responder (Mailbot)
An email address that automatically sends a predetermined email message back when it receives mail.

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Backbone
A high-speed line or series of connections that forms a major pathway within a network.
Bandwidth
The rate at which you can send or receive information through your connection to the Internet. The range of transmission frequencies a network can use. The greater the bandwidth the more information that can be transferred over that network at one time. The term bandwidth also broadly includes throughput, meaning the amount of data sent
Baseband
A transmission method in which a network uses its entire transmission range to send a single signal.
BASIC
An acronym for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code -- a widely used, high-level programming language.
Baud
A unit of speed in data transmission, or the maximum speed at which data can be sent down a channel. Baud is often equivalent to bits per second. Named after J. M. E. Baudot (died 1903).
BBS
Bulletin Board System - Areas within the Internet where you can post messages and announcements. A computer equipped with software and telecommunications links that allow it to act as an information host for remote computer systems.
Binary Code
A representation of the base-2 number system in which the only allowable digits are 0 and 1.
BinHex
A file conversion format that converts binary files to ASCII text files.
BIOS
Basic Input 0utput System - It loads when you start up your computer and runs the inner workings of the computer
Bit
A contraction of binary digit, a bit is the smallest unit of information that a computer can hold. Eight bits is equivalent to a byte. The speed at which bits are transmitted or bit rate is usually expressed as bits per second or bps.
Bookmark
The URL of a webpage you have saved is stored in a special folder so that you can easily find the page again.
Bot
Short for infobot, robot, or knowbot; a program used to search the Internet for data.
A program commonly found on IRC that keeps channels open and regulates control of the channel. Some perform additional duties, such as playing games, like chess or word games
BPS
Bits per Second - refers to the data-transfer speed allowed by the network or your connection to the network.
The measure of a modem's speed in transfering data. Usually referred to in kilobps, examples include 14.4 KBPS, 28.8 KBPS, or 33.6 KBPS.
Broadband
A transmission method in which the networks range of transmission frequencies is divided into separate channels and each channel is used to send a different signal. Broadband is often used to send different types of signals simultaneously.
Browser
A type of software that allows you to navigate information databases (WWW); examples are Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer.
Buffer
A reserved, temporary place in which information is stored while being processed.
Bug
A software or hardware error that causes the system to malfunction.
Byte
The number of bits used to represent a character.

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CGI - Common Gateway Interface
A service that provides added functionality to Web sites by using scripts or programs that are executed on the server.
Channels
A 'Chat Room' on IRC, or Internet Relay Chat.
Chat
A means of communicating with people on the Internet by typing statements into your computer, and having the other person do so as well.
Chip
Short for integrated circuit chip, a collection of interconnected microminiature electronic components.
Client
Software that allows you to retrieve information from the Internet and the Web.
Compression
A means of reducing the size of files to allow quicker transmission, or to take up less space. you need a program such as WinZip to compress and uncompress the files.
Configuration
This is a general-purpose computer term that can refer to the way you have your computer set up. It is also used to describe the total combination of hardware components that make up a computer system and the software settings that allow various hardware components of a computer system to communicate with one another.
CPU - Central Processing Unit
The part within the computer that interprets and executes the instructions the user gives the system. It is composed of an arithmetic logic unit, a control unit, and some memory. In a personal computer, it is a single chip.
Cybernetics
The comparative study of human and machine processes in order to understand the similarities and differences.
Cyberspace
The total range of information available through computer networks. A term coined by author William Gibson.

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Debug
Call an exterminator :) No, not really -- to debug something means to correct a problem within computer hardware or software.
Dial-up Connection
The most popular form of Net connection for the home user, this is a connection from your computer to a host computer over standard telephone lines.
Domain
An organizational address that has been registered. Example: www.altavista.com, or www.ircbeginner.com. domain names are used to make finding a site easier. Without domain names, one would have to keep a list of numerical internet addresses like 123.243.321.135
Domain Name
The name that identifies an Internet site such as www.ircbeginner.com. The three digit suffix (last part) of a domain identifies the type of organization. A domain name ending with .com refers to a commercial web site. Domain names can also end with .net (Network), .org (Organization or non-profit), .edu (Educational), .gov (Government), .mil (Military), .int (International), and .cc.
Download
To transfer to your computer a copy of a file that resides on another computer.
DNS
An acronym for Domain Name Server, DNS refers to a database of Internet names and addresses which translates the names to the official Internet Protocol numbers and vice versa.
DSU
The abbreviation for Digital Services Unit, DSU replaces the modem in synchronous connections to the Internet.

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EDI
The abbreviation for Electronic Data Interchange, EDI system allows linked computers to conduct business transactions such as ordering and invoicing over telecommunications networks.
Emoticon
Also known as a 'smiley', a combination of ASCII characters that suggests an emotion when read sideways ;-)
E-mail
Electronic Mail - messages sent between computers with an Internet address.
Ethernet
Protocol for connecting individual computers to Local Area networks (LANs).
ETLA
(Extended Three Letter Acronym) Like a TLA but with more than three letters!
External Viewer
A program used for presenting graphics, audio and video files. Programs that allow the viewing of GIF and JPEG files and the hearing of AU files fall into this category.

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FAQ
This is the acronym for Frequently Asked Questions. A common feature on the Internet, FAQs are files of answers to commonly asked questions. Read FAQs before wasting electrons asking obvious questions.
Firewall
This term refers to security measures designed to protect a networked system from unauthorized or unwelcome access.
Frame relay
A telephone term describing a way to hook up dedicated line connections.
Freeware
Software that has been developed and is provided free of charge. The developer still retains rights to the software.
FTP
(File Transfer Protocol) Methods of transferring files to and from remote computers.

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GIF:
(Graphics Interchange Format ) A visual image file.
Gopher
A menu-based method of searching for information on the Internet, originally developed at the University of Minnesota.
GPL
GPL - Gnu Public License. This basically means you have permission to run the program, copy the program, modify the program, distribute the modified program, but you cannot add restrictions of your own. This is statement is part of the "Copyleft" twist on the standard copyright law. More info is available from http://www.gnu.org.
GUI
An acronym for Graphical User Interface, this term refers to a software front-end meant to provide an attractive and easy to use interface between a computer user and application. The Macintosh operating system has a GUI, DOS does not.

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Hardware
The physical apparatus that makes up a computer
Hit
A measure of Web site traffic; each time a page on a site is requested.
Home page
The first screen you see when you enter a Web Site.
Host
A computer on a network that provides services to other computers on the network.
Unless you have your own server, you need a hosting company who provides a server or computer that is connected to the Internet and makes your Web pages available on the Internet.
Generally speaking, the 'host' is the computer you log into to access your internet connection.
HTML
HyperText Markup Language -- HTML is a universal language that allows computers of all types and operating systems to communicate to one another.
HTML is used to tag various parts of a Web document so browsing software will know how to display that document's links, text, graphics and attached media.
HTTP
The abbreviation for Hypertext Transfer Protocol, HTTP is used to link and transfer hypertext documents.
Hyperlinks - Links
Words or blocks of text or images on Web pages that take you to another page when you click on them. Internal links take you somewhere else on the same Web site. External links take you to a different Web Site.
Hypertext
This term describes the system that allows documents to be cross- linked in such a way that the reader can explore related documents by clicking on a highlighted word or symbol.

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IAB
The abbreviation for Internet Architecture Board, the IAB is the council that makes decisions about Internet standards.
ICMP
ICMP mean Internet Control Message Protocol - and is a type of protocol that is used in the TCP/IP suite.
IETF
Internet Engineering Task Force - IETF refers to a subgroup of the Internet Architecture Board that focuses on solving technical problems on the Internet.
Internet
A network of computers that is inter-connected around the world.
Internic
The primary registration services and directory for the American part of the Internet.
IP
Internet Protocol - IP refers to the set of communication standards that control communications activity on the Internet. An IP address is the number assigned to any Internet-connected computer.
IRC
Internet Relay Chat - A computerized way for people to congregate and chat together.
ISDN
Integrated Services Digital Network - ISDN is a telecommunications standard that uses digital transmission technology to support voice, video and data communications applications over regular telephone lines.
ISP
ISP = Internet Service Provider. It's the service that you connect through to access either the Internet or IRC.
ISOC
Internet Society - an organization formed to support a worldwide information network. ISOC is the sponsoring body of the Internet Architecture Board.

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JPEG
Joint Photographic Experts Group - JPEG is an image compression format used to transfer color photographs and images over computer networks. Along with GIF, it's one of the most common ways photos are moved over the Web.

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LAN - Local Area Network
A computer system that links computers, printers, and other devices in a confined area, such as a building or a campus.
Links
These are the hypertext connections between Web pages. The part of a web page that allows you to travel to another web page, email someone, or download files. Also known as hyperlink.

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Mailing List
A program that allows everyone on the list to send the same email to everyone else on the list.
MIME
An acronym for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions, MIME is a messaging standard that allows Internet users to exchange e-mail messages enhanced with graphics, video and voice. MIME file types are also used in Mosaic.
Modem
A device that connects your computer to other computers via phone line.
Mosaic
This is the common name of a World Wide Web multimedia browser program developed at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications in Urbana-Champaign, Ill. The official, copyrighted name of the program is NCSA Mosaic(tm).
MPEG
The acronym for Moving Pictures Expert Group, MPEG is an international standard for video compression and desktop movie presentation. A special viewing application is needed to run MPEG files on your computer.

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Netiquette
The rules of conduct that govern how people behave in CyberSpace -- at least in theory.
Netscape Navigator
The most popular browser for accessing the World Wide Web.
NFS
The abbreviation for Network File System, NFS is a protocol suite developed and licensed by Sun Microsystems that allows different makes of computers running different operating systems to share files and disk storage.
Nibble
One-half byte, or 4 bits
NIC
The abbreviation for Network Information Center, NIC is an organization responsible for supplying information for component networks that comprise the Internet.
NOC
The abbreviation for Network Operations Center, NOC is the organization responsible for the day-to-day operations of the Internet's component networks.
NREN
The abbreviation for National Research and Education Network, NREN is an effort to combine the networks operated by the U.S. government into a single high-speed network.

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Operating System
A master control program that runs the computer. It provides the user interface and routines that let the user load and run software.
OSI Model
The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model for describing network protocols was devised by the Internet Standards Organization. It divides protocols in to seven layers to standardize and simplify definitions.

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Packet
switching technology that transfers information across the Net in programs, files, or listings.
Peripheral
Any hardware devide that provides input, output or storage for a computer, such as keyboards, monitors, disks, or rinters.
Pixel
An acronym for picture element -- the smallest display element on a video display screen.
POP
(Point of Presence) An Internet access node of an Internet service provider - in other words, the number your modem rings to get on-line.
POP3
(Post Office Protocol 3) A type of e-mail system which stores messages on your service provider's machine and downloads them automatically when you are on-line. .
POTS
This is an acronym for Plain Old Telephone Service.
PPP
(Point to Point Protocol) A regular phone line that connects to the Internet.
Protocol
A set of standards that define how traffic and communications are handled by a computer or network routers.

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RAM
An acronym for Random Access Memory, same as memory. The user can retrieve and alter contents of RAM.
ROM
An acronym for Read Only Memory -- a permanent memory, the contents of which can be read, but not altered.
RFC
RFC stands for Request for Comments and are a framework for Internet procesures, and are always a work in progress. Every Internet procedure such as WWW, FTP, Archie, etc, has an RFC.
Router
A communications device designed to transmit signals via the most efficient route possible.

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Search Engine
An online way to search for web pages, email addresses, telephone numbers, etc. Examples include Yahoo, AltaVista, Web Crawler.
Server
The software that people with a home page need in order to let you look at their stuff, or the computer on which it is held. A computer system that manages and delivers information for client computers.
SGML
The abbreviation for Standard Generalized Markup Language, SGML is an international standard for the publication and delivery of electronic information.
Shareware
Software which can be used for free for a trial period, after which a small payment is expected. Generally downloaded from the Net.
Signature
A line or series of lines that are always attached to the end of an email message you send, usually telling company or personal information.
SLIP
The acronym for Serial Line Internet Protocol, SLIP refers to a method of Internet connection that enables computers to use phone lines and a modem to connect to the Internet without having to connect to a host.
SMTP
(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) A type of electronic mail protocol which governs the format of email messages, usually ASCII.
Socket
This is a communication mechanism originally implemented on the BSD version of the UNIX operating system. Sockets are used as endpoints for sending and receiving data between computers.
Software
The programs, or set of instructions, that tell the computer what to do.
Spam
Sending a message to multiple newsgroups or mailing lists that didn't ask for it. just like opening a can of Spam and then throwing it into a whirling fan.
Spider
An automated program that searches the internet.
Surfing
Browsing the Internet without a specific goal or topic.

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Tags
These are formatting codes used in HTML documents. Tags indicate how parts of a document will appear when displayed by browsing software.
T-1
A connection to the Internet capable of carrying 1,544,000 bits-per-second. (1.45 Mbp.)
TCP/IP
(Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) The communications protocol that connects your computer to the Internet.
Telnet
The command program used to access other servers on the Internet.
TIFF
This is the acronym for Tagged Image File Format, a graphic file format developed by Aldus and Microsoft. Mosaic supports the viewing of TIFF images.
TLA
(Three Letter Acronym) Three letter abbreviations used in newsgroups, e-mail, and throughout the computer world.
Trumpet Winsock
A popular, cheerier TCP/IP protocol stack.

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URL
Uniform Resource Locator - the addressing system used in the World Wide Web and other Internet resources. The URL contains information about the method of access, the server to be accessed and the path of any file to be accessed.

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Veronica
This is a search utility that helps find information on gopher servers. Veronica allows users to enter keywords to locate the gopher site holding the desired information. The name is an acronym for "Very easy rodent oriented net-wide index of computerized archives."
Virtual Memory
The use of hard disk storage to expand effective memory capability
Virtual Reality
Interaction with a computer to create an artificial reality that projects the user into a 3-dimensional space.
Virus
A program that is very damaging to your computer should it infect your system. Running a virus-protection program is very beneficial in stopping the threat of computer meltdown.
VPOP
(Virtual Point of Presence) A local, off-site PoP directly connected to the Internet service provider - in effect indistinguishable from a PoP.
VETLA
(Very Extended Three Letter Acronym) Like a TLA but with too many letters!

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WAIS
The abbreviation for Wide Area Information Service, WAIS is a Net-wide system for looking up specific information in Internet databases.
WAN
(Wide Area Network) Any internet or network that covers an area larger than a single building.
Web Document
An HTML document that is browsable on the Web.
Webmaster
This term refers to the person in charge of administrating a World Wide Web site.
Web Site
A collection of web pages that have something in common.
World Wide Web
Also known as WWW or W3, the World Wide Web is a hypertext-based Internet service used for browsing Internet resources.

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